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Depiction in Interpreting, How and When?
Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. There are three communication skills 4 that intervene in the discourse knowledge. These skills should be related so that the subject is able to produce a textual interpretation. The general competence is the ability to produce utterances in the context of a number of genres. In turn, linguistic competence is related to mastery of language and encyclopedic competence refers to knowledge about the world. The composition of narratives requires proper coordination of different cognitive and communication skills as organization of ideas, story development, temporal sequence, inter-relationship between events and characters among others 5.
Written narratives are based on oral narratives 6. The learner needs to be exposed and to have contact with texts in his known environment in order to acquire a true narrative scheme 7. This occurs because the learner must elaborate ideas, arrange the components and implement the strategies. In this sense, the way a narrative is written indicates the progression of reading and writing skills, becoming an important parameter for Speech-Language Pathology and Educational practices.
The use of pictures to elicit written production is characterized as a standardized stimulus from which children can start their composition. Thus, after seeing a picture, the child needs to understand and identify not only the actions but also the intentions of the characters and make inferences regarding the elaboration of a narrative 8. The authors concluded that the picture is important for the development of narrative writing because it provided more elaborate stories - the sequence of four pictures encompassed theme, scene, characters, goal and a problem situation.
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Therefore, it is possible to infer that the picture is a bridge to literacy process and therapeutic practices. Based on the foregoing, the present study aimed to verify the influence of visual stimuli on the written production of students of Elementary Education with no complaints of reading and writing difficulties. The selected school serves families of lower middle class and students attend regular school in the morning and workshop activities in the afternoon.
Twenty-five children without complaints of reading and writing difficulties, regardless gender and age, participated. Sixteen children were 4 th graders and nine were 5 th graders of an Elementary Public School. In addition, teachers of 4 th and 5 th grades also signed an ICF agreeing to provide data about the performance of participating students.
Working Proposal for Expansions using Depiction
Materials for selection of participants. Anamnesis with the parents was conducted to obtain data on personal and family history of participants. Teachers were asked to complete a questionnaire providing information on academic performance and behavioral characteristics of each child in the sample in order to remove from the sample children who could exhibit any deficits. The protocol Reading and Writing Assessment of the institution where the study was conducted was used to assess the level of writing.
The protocol includes tests of visual recognition of words, reading of words and sentences, word and phrase cloze as well as production of written text. Materials for data collection. Two protocols containing an action figure Appendix 1 and figures in sequence Appendix 2 were used for the assessment of written productions. The figures in sequence were selected based on previous studies 9,10 which had the aim of validating a sensitive tool for small progress in the acquisition of writing of individuals with congenital deafness.
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The action figure was obtained from a history book with pictures in sequence 11 that is widely used in the area of language to promote the writing of narrative and discourse in children 5,12, For the current study only one of the sequences containing many actions was selected from the book Appendix 1. During the meeting they were informed of the study purposes and were invited to participate. The parents or guardians who agreed to have their children participating signed the ICF. The anamnesis held with the parents allowed the investigation of possible complaints of reading and writing difficulties.
Following, the Information Questionnaire for Teachers and the protocol for Reading and Writing Assessment were applied. The hearing screening with a Pediatric Audiometer PA at 50 centimeters away from the ear and without visual cues was carried out at the intensity of 20 dB HL from Hz to 4 kHz at to confirm that the participants had no hearing loss. Children individually performed their written production; they were divided into small groups so they could not communicate to each other during the assessment.
The assessment was conducted in a room designated by the school. The application of assessment with the two different stimuli was performed in two alternate days, always during the school period. The total time required to perform the data collection of all participants was three months. The figures in sequence were used on the first assessment and the action figure on the second assessment.
There was no time limit for the completion of written production, but the duration was recorded for subsequent analysis. The written productions were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed according to the adapted 14 communication skills criteria 4 linguistic, generic and encyclopedic Appendix 3.
As for the quantitative analysis, each item, with the exception of discourse type, received a score according to the description and classification presented in Appendix 3. The overall score for each child in each assessment could range from zero to 22 points. To ensure data reliability, five judges with experience and expertise in the area of reading and writing individually reviewed and scored all written productions after specific training. Statistical tests were performed to compare the written productions based on the action figure and figures in sequence.
In some cases, the distribution of results prevented the application of specific statistical tests. Table 1 displays the comparisons between the overall mean scores provided by the judges for the written productions according to the visual stimuli used sequence and action. This result may have interfered in the time duration of written production preparation, which was similar for both stimuli. There were no differences between the two types of stimuli on comparisons according to topic reliability; The results showed no difference on the use of tittle according to the stimulus presented Table 2.
There was an indication that the action picture provided higher occurrence of intertextuality use, although it was not possible to apply statistical tests Table 2. Regarding the organization of ideas, there was no difference in the distribution of results between the two stimuli. Seventy-six percent of children improperly or insufficiently used punctuation on both stimuli. Furthermore, there was no difference in time children spent on the preparation of written productions on the two visual stimuli Table 4. The adequate selection of pictures might be a key element in the production of written discourse and guide the work of Speech-Language Pathologists and Educators.
Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the influence of different visual stimuli on the written production of children with no complaints of writing difficulties. Importantly, the data were not comparatively analyzed between students of 4 th and 5 th grades as the sample could not be matched and the investigation of educational level effects was not the main purpose of this study.
The initial hypothesis was that the written productions based on action figures would provide narrative discourse and the productions based on figures in sequence would provide a more descriptive discourse given the very characteristic of each stimulus. This hypothesis was not confirmed as both types of pictures elicited similar discourses. A possible explanation for the non-interference of visual stimuli type in the written production of children may be related to the content of figures.
While it was sought to balance the selection of visual stimuli, it was noted only after the analysis that both pictures contained narrative trigger elements, being this a limitation of the study. As to the general competence, narrative was found as a type of discourse in all written productions for both stimuli. This fact contradicts the literature, in which there seems to be a tendency that figures with simple temporal sequence favor descriptive production 7.
The results of a study on the written production of Brazilian children showed that, in initial grades, there is a trend for the production of texts without conventional characteristics of stories, such as notes and letters. As the literacy process develops, the written productions are modified and writing of stories appears to sharply progress along the school years 7.
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Although the two visual stimuli have propitiated the development of the narrative discourse, it was found that some children produced narratives with argument signs when the stimuli were figures in sequence, suggesting that such stimulation triggers further elaboration of the discourse. Regarding narrator and character marking, it was observed that most children used this marking when the visual stimulus was the action figure. Regarding encyclopedic competence, specifically to encyclopedic knowledge, the results indicate that children did not present facts related to world knowledge suggested by the images.
This would be expected for such educational levels. The practice of reading and writing has unique characteristics and depend on the quality of teaching It is also essential to consider the history of life, daily and social group activities, and socio-historical context of the school Regarding the reliability to the topic, vocabulary, and organization of ideas, there was no difference in results when comparing the produced elicited by the two stimuli.
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This can be justified by the use of narrative discourse, which requires a constant evaluation of the characters, the need to make decisions about the course of the story, and selection of linguistic expressions shared with readers Although there was no difference regarding intertextuality, the results suggest that the action figure allowed children to better use their previous knowledge, experience with other texts, and creativity 7. However, vocabulary was simple for written productions elicited by both stimuli and the use of title was also uncommon.
The fact that most children have used inference for both stimuli, albeit partially, can be explained by the presence of figurative elements, i. The narrative provides important information about the linguistic competence and the pragmatic rules of language in which it is written, since writing stories requires the integration of several skills, besides organization of the linguistic material Thus, on the linguistic competence, the length of the text, punctuation and spelling was analyzed.
In addition, the overall cohesion was included on the analysis given the importance of this aspect on the written production. The analysis of linguistic competence is closely linked to general competence as the narrative structure involves the organization of ideas in a logical and temporal sequence, which is demarcated by punctuation.
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Thus, the written text is conventionally presented in the form of paragraphs 19 , the latter being boundaries that facilitate the reading process 20,21 and presentation of information Adding to this, the divisions of paragraphs present the thematic discontinuity, and this may be related to: time, space, dramatic figure, topic or guidance Another fundamental language proficiency parameter analyzed was punctuation, as it indicates the limits of each paragraph and mark the intonation needed for reading.
In the current study, the analysis of written production has shown that the use of punctuation was problematic independently of the visual stimuli presented. This may have occurred because the novice writer writes as if speaking, and, in speech, the contextualization is given by the simultaneous interaction between the sender and receiver of the message.